2019 Season Emission Testing Report

Objectives.-

With ever increasing awareness on how air quality affects the health of all of us both long and short term. Along with growing pressure for all of us to take responsibility on how our actions directly affect the environment we live and work in. The F.I.A. sent out a directive for all forms of motorsport to look at ways to reduce the environmental and public health impact. Before the 2019 season the BTRA and Premier Diagnostics forged a technical partnership to look at the levels of Diesel Smoke Emitted from various Trucks on the Grid. With a measured understanding of where the Trucks were in respect of the levels of Smoke, we could then evolve an approach to look at how we could look to employ alternative fuel types and evaluate how fuel borne additives may play a role. As the season progressed we also looked at the production of NOx and how the various fuels and additives played their part in decreasing or even increasing levels measured.

Methods.-

The smoke tests were carried out using the, DVSA approved, Premier Diagnostics DS2-2M Smoke Meter. With the results recorded as K(1/m) which is the recognised metric when smoke testing road vehicles for MOT purposes. For reference Pre 2008 Turbo Charged Diesel Smoke Limit that Road Vehicles are subject to is 3.0K(1/m). However this is strictly for reference / comparison and we must stress we are not applying a Pass / Fail limit.

Additionally at Thruxton we attended with a 4 gas analyser and we had the ability to measure more than just peak smoke values. we had to look at what numbers would be of interest to us and how we were going to implement the test. A peak smoke test would be conducted averaged across 3 accelerations, as we had previously carried out. With focus on the other Gases we could measure, O2 and CO2 are not gases that are linked to harmful pollution and variation across the test were not significant so were disregarded. CO is a poisonous gas and may have been of interest, however Diesel Engines are not associated with producing large quantities of CO, the levels were well below the MOT limits of the latest road going petrol cars with advanced catalytic converters, and we saw little variation across the tests. NOx is associated with pollution and air quality issues so we focused on this along with the smoke test. We were unable to test on track and all tests were stationary tests with results determined for Peak Smoke (Particulates) with an average across 3 full throttle accelerations, with NOx measured at Idle and a further reading taken at a Fast Idle held steady at between approximately 1/2 to 2/3rds of the maximum speed of the engine. The 4 gas unit employed a chemical electric cell for NOx measurement, which does have some limitations and we should not look at the numbers as absolute. However, the tests were repeatable and can be compared directly with each other to show strong trends.

Fuel and Additive Information.-

Fuels.-

EN 590 Diesel. Fossil Fuel Based. Commonly available.

EN 15940 Shell GTL. Gas to Liquid Fossil Fuel. Distributed in the UK by Certas Energy. Available for those with Bulk Storage.

EN 15940 Neste HVO / Green D+. Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil. Distributed in the UK by Green Bio Fuels. Available for those with Bulk Storage. (Already contains Energenics Envirox PP02 Cerium Dioxide)

Fuel Borne Additives.-

Lucas Oils Diesel Deep Clean alongside their Diesel Fuel Treatment and Top End Lubricant.

Energenics Envirox PP02 Cerium Dioxide Fuel Borne Catalyst.

Vehicles and Results.-

We tested a number of Trucks with various engine types, including Mechanically Injected, Electronically Metered PD and Common Rail. The tests were carried out during the Rounds at Brands Hatch (BH), Thruxton (Thr), Donnington (Don), Snetterton (Sne) and both of the Pembrey (P1 and P2) meetings. We have displayed the readings for each Truck in improving order relative to Smoke with the Fuel Type and Additives shown for each test rather than the order the tests were carried out. We endeavoured to test the Trucks as soon as possible after they finished on track with the engines at operating temperature.

Driver: Adam Bint Vehicle: Volvo Aerodyne Race Number: 5
Fuel Type: Session: Smoke average NOx PPM Idle NOx PPM Fast
Diesel Don Race 1 1.72 K(1/m) 165 172
Shell GTL / Certas Don Race 2 1.44 K(1/m) 136 151

 

Driver: Erik Forsstrom Vehicle: SISU / Mechanical Race Number: 50
Fuel Type: Session: Smoke average NOx PPM Idle NOx PPM Fast
Diesel Thr Race 1 6.85 K(1/m) 10 6
Shell GTL / Certas Thr Race 2 5.04 K(1/m) 2 3

 

Driver: Jim Bennett Seddon / M14 Mechanical Race Number: 28
Fuel Type: Session: Smoke average NOx PPM Idle NOx PPM Fast
Diesel BH Quali 4.85 K(1/m) Not measured Not measured
Shell GTL + Lucas BH Race 1 4.63 K(1/m) Not measured Not measured
Diesel Thr Race 1 4.56 K(1/m) 129 190
Shell GTL / Certas Thr Race 2 4.12 K(1/m) 106 148
Diesel+Envirox 1:1000 P2 Race 2 3.67 K(1/m) 125 145
Shell GTL / Certas Thr Race 3 3.64 K(1/m) 84 105
Shell GTL + Lucas BH Race 2 3.55 K(1/m) Not Measured Not Measured
GTL +Envirox @ 1:1000 Sne Race 1 3.15 K(1/m) 86 102
GTL +Envirox @ 1:500 Sne Race 2 3.02 K(1/m) 75 93

 

Driver: John Powell DAF / M11 Celect PD Race Number: 6
Fuel Type: Session: Smoke average NOx PPM Idle NOx PPM Fast
Diesel Pre Season 3.43 K(1/m) Not measured Not measured
Diesel + Lucas Pre Season 3.29 K(1/m) Not measured Not measured
Diesel+Envirox  1:1000 Sne Race 1 2.14 K(1/m) 256 218
Diesel+Envirox 1:500 P2 Race 1 1.98 K(1/m) 230 201
Diesel+Envirox 1:333 P2 Race 3 1.98 K(1/m) 410 320
Certas + Lucas BH Test 3 1.87 K(1/m) Not Measured Not Measured
GTL + Envirox 1:1000 Sne Race 2 1.76 K(1/m) 225 200
GTL + Envirox 1:500 Sne Race 3 1.72 K(1/m) 198 170
GreenD+Envirox1:1000 P1 Race 3 1.66 K(1/m) Not Measured Not Measured

 

Driver: Brad Smith DAF / M11 Celect PD Race Number: 16
Fuel Type: Session: Smoke average NOx PPM Idle NOx PPM Fast
Diesel Sne Race 2 2.63 K(1/m) 230 287
Diesel+Envirox  1:1000 Sne Race 3 2.31 K(1/m) 190 166
GTL + Lucas BH Test 3 2.28 K(1/m) Not Measured Not Measured
GTL + Envirox 1:1000 Sne Race 2 1.76 K(1/m) 225 200
GTL + Envirox 1:500 Sne Race 3 1.72 K(1/m) 198 170

 

Driver: Graham Powell Renault Common Rail Race Number: 55
Fuel Type: Session: Smoke average NOx PPM Idle NOx PPM Fast
Diesel Thr Race 2 0.67 K(1/m) 298 197
Shell GTL / Certas Thr Race 3 0.37 K(1/m) 249 190

Summary 2019.-

Fuels.-

EN 590 Diesel. Consistently produced the highest levels of Smoke and NOx. However, we did see improvements when the additives were used.

EN 15940 Certas Energy / Shell GTL. Reduced Smoke and NOx by a significant amount with further improvements when the fuel was dosed with the additives.

EN 15940 Neste HVO / Green D+. Although we only tested a limited quantity due to availability, as the fuel is distributed into bulk storage and is not readily available at the pumps. The fuel performed to reduce pollution to a similar level as GTL which sit together in the EN 15940 Classification of fuels. HVO has an advantage, as it is not a fossil fuel, the Carbon Footprint of getting a litre of fuel to the tank of the vehicle is significantly less than fossil based fuel types.

Fuel Borne Additives.-

Lucas Oils Diesel Deep Clean alongside their Diesel Fuel Treatment and Top End Lubricant made some gains towards less Smoke, this is likely to be explained by a restorative effect of performance by internal cleaning of engine and fuel system components. A boost to the Cetane value would result in faster and fuller burning of the fuel resulting in less Smoke being emitted from the exhaust.

Energenics Envirox PP02 Cerium Dioxide Fuel Borne Catalyst. Aids combustion by reducing the temperatures required for Carbon to burn. It also boosts the Cetane value allowing faster and fuller burning of the fuel in the combustion chamber. Envirox significantly reduced measured Smoke and NOx in all of the tests it was used in when dosed at the recommended rate of 1:1000. We saw additional marginal gains when dosed at 1:500. When triple dosed at 1:333 no further reduction of Smoke was evident although the NOx values increased dramatically.

Regulations.-

After initial trials of the EN 15940 fuels showed such large reduction in Smoke the sporting regulations were changed for the first meeting at Pembrey to include EN 15940 as a legal fuel type going forward. Once it was established there was no performance advantage.

Since the introduction of EN 15940 fuels, no drivers were “yellow carded” for infringement of Excess Black Smoke Rules.

Engines.-

The various engine types performed exactly as expected. With the earlier Mechanical Engines of Erik Forsstrom (50) and Jim Bennett (28) producing the most measured Smoke. With Jim Bennett getting close to being able to pass the Pre 2008 Turbo Charged Diesel Smoke MOT test Limit of 3.0K(1/m). The Electronically Metered Engines of Adam Bint (5), John Powell (6) and Brad Smith’s (16) lowest measured readings were hovering around the permissible MOT limit of 1.5K(1/m) for road vehicles registered between 2008 and 1st January 2014. Graham Powell’s (55) Renault was the stand out performer with his Common Rail Renault Engine producing Levels of Smoke that would pass the latest “Euro 6” MOT Smoke Limit of 0.7K(1/m).

Looking Forward into 2020.-

Premier Diagnostics are pledging continued support for the BTRA through the 2020 season to continue to build on the foundations we have laid down this season. And will also bring knowledge and experience from other areas to ensure prolonged sustainability of the Championship.

We will aim to ensure better availability of EN 15940 fuels for the Race Meetings going forward.

We will look at the Sporting Regulations to see if any variations are required to be made following on from the work we have carried out this year.

Mechanical Engines are being phased out for 2020 season and we look forward to working with the new Engines that will appear to replace them next year.

To view more information about Premier Diagnostics.-

http://www.premierdiagnostics.ltd.uk/about-us/

And their products.-

http://www.premierdiagnostics.ltd.uk/products/

Keep up to date with the 2020 BTRA Meetings and News.-

http://btra.co.uk/

 

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